Further examination of the residential section reveals many more listings. There
were about
53 different billiard halls, billiard rooms and billiard saloons listed.

Pierre A. Carme     115 Randolph
S.C. Cumins Billiard Temple    178 Wabash
George W. Dyer   158 S. Halstead **
James Earley   (colored)  251 S. Clark
Griffith & Henry (Edward F. Griffith & Peter H. Henry)   339 W. Madison
Hughes Bros. (William & Andrew)    886,888, 890 State
Moran & Gray (Thomas Moran & Edward Gray)  79 Dearborn
Wightman & Moran ( A.P. Wightman & John E. Moran) 271 W. Randolph
Thomas Nolan    91 & 93 Blue Island av.
Jeremiah H. Prescott   51 Dearborn
Schmidt Bros. (Friedrick & Leohnard Schmidt)    873 Clark
William Tucker   158 S. Halstead
Everett House (Hotel),
Samuel S. Wright    26 N. Wells
White & Crutcher (Edward White & George Crutcher)   182 Clark
Wheeler & Co. ( W. H. Wheeler & H. Lee)   188 Clark
Charles Timmerson @ Uhlich's Hotel
Spahn & Forhan ( Joseph M. Spahn & Simon J. Forhan)   50 Blue Island av.
Briggs House (Hotel),
Edward Smith   700 W. Lake
C.T. Smith    543 Archer av.
March & Shay (George March & John Shay)  118 W. Madison
Schroeder Bros. ( John & Henry Schroeder)   249 Clark
Urban Schmitz    287 W. 12th
Adolph P. Rudolphe    79 Clark
Quinlan & Lavery ( Edward Quinlan & John Lavery) 805 State
J.R. Pearsall   479 N. Clark
E. & S.H. Noble (Eugene & Samuel)   1308 State
George W. Morris  176 Clark
Nicholas Morper   219 & 221 Rush
Sherman House (Hotel),
Brunswick Billiard Hall (J.M. Brunswick & Bros.) 122 & 124 Washington
Marelius & Throlson (Edmund Marelius & Andrew G. Throlson) -
137 & 139 Chicago av.
McBeath & Tait (George W. McBeath & Stewart Tait ) 120  22nd
Henry J. Lenzen  19 Milwaukee av.
A. Lagorio  299 W. Madison
Bernard D. Kewin   32 W. Randolph
Kernberger & Ricketts (Adolph A. Kernberger & Benj. M. Ricketts) -
95 & 97 W. Randolph
Joseph Govas   733 W. Madison
James A. Goodwin  Billiards and Boarding House 744 State
James E. Fox    543 Archer av.
Thomas Foley   152 Dearborn
Flynn & Kelly (Joseph P. Flynn & John T. Kelly )  396 W. Lake
Charles E. Ernst     372 Chicago
Doty's Billiard Hall  (Harvey C. Doty) 74 & 76  Randolph
Doig & Bro. (James & John H.)  148 W. 12th
Coon & Curtis Continental Billiard Hall (J.W. Coon & Charles A. Curtis) -
50 1/2  Dearborn
James Considine   290  W. 12th
Cyrus Coan 186 & 188 W. Madison and 762 & 764 Michigan av.
M. Casey   280 State
Tremont House (Hotel),
Bowman Bros. (Charles A. & Frank )  185 W. Madison  
William Allen  102 W. Randolph
Billiard Table Companies of Chicago 1869
As listed in Edwards' Chicago Directory
Just like the car dealerships and fast food franchises of today, many of the major
table makers from around the country had established a branch sales and/or
assembly facility in Chicago.

Rudolph Kleemann was the local dealer of Phelan & Collender tables.( out of NY)
Charles Schulenburg of Detroit opened a Chicago shop with Adolph Zeller.
John M. Brunswick brought his business over from Ohio.
Julius Balke was another reputable table maker out of Ohio.
Below are the Schulenburg  (& Zeller) ad and the Chicago Billiard Table
Manufactory (R. Kleeman)
ad from the 1869 directory:
Below: 1866 Brunswick Advertisement ( same directory)
Note: You might not notice anything different at first but this is one of the rare moments in
Brunswick's History when you see J.M. and Emanuel's name together.
Otherwise, they kept two separate companies.  


News:  April 4, 1862   Report from "The Great Billiard Tournament"
Match between Michael Foley and Dudley Kavanagh.
Apparently, the report is incomplete because the reporter got tired and went home.
(They ended up playing all night)

Early Days of Billiards in Chicago
" During the war period a number of new rooms were opened. In 1862, Cyrus
Coan, a player of some note, located at 51 Dearborn street. A.P. Marshall
furnished one of the show places at 79 Dearborn street, which he subsequently
sold to Moran & Gray. The following year David Horan added billiard tables to the
equipment of the well known "House of David", on Dearborn street, across the
alley from the Tremont, and Thomas Ball fitted up a cozy room with four tables in
the basement of McVickers Theatre.

These were the primitive days when the game was played with four balls on a six
pocket table mighty nigh as big as some counties in Jersey. "

Excerpt from: Billiards Magazine March 1920, A.L. Hardy

Sept. 17  The Battle of Antietam at Sharpsburg, Maryland commenced.
    Now known as "the bloodiest day in US history".

1862 Company Profile:    E. Brunswick & Co.  
A short but informative piece about billiards in general - and Emanuel Brunswick.
The advertisement below appeared with this article in the book :
History of Chicago; Its Commercial and Manufacturing interests and Industry:[etc]
I.D. Guyer 1862
News:  Dec.19, 1864   Where Should The IL State Championship Be Held?
Chicago or the capital city of Springfield, IL. Chicago Tribune


Civil War officially ends.

June 14-21 The First Official Illinois State Championship is Held in Chicago
(read more about it in the articles below)

News: June 23, 1865   Thomas Foley Wins First  IL State Championship
Years later, Tom will also be instrumental in the development of Chicago baseball.

News:  Dec. 10, 1899    A Championship Played in Chicago
please note error: article says January but it was June.

News:  Feb. 18, 1912   One Left Of 65' Cue Tourney
Tom Foley only surviving player 47 years later. Image below appeared with article.

Below:  Players in the First Illinois State Championship
It is believed that this photo was once owned, and saved from the fire of 1871 by none other
than Thomas Foley himself. See the article above from 1899 for the story.
Patent #72,969      Jan. 7, 1868      Emanuel Brunswick
A nice rotating cue rack.

Patent # 80,499        July 28, 1868          Louis Portner
New reflector for kerosene lamps ( for billiard tables)

Patent # 81,947    Sept. 8, 1868        Charles F. Ritchel
Chalk and sandpaper holder for billiard table

J. E. Came Co.  "Time & Price Register"
Time registers such as this beautiful 1868 example were used by hall owners to
keep track of how much you owed for the use of your table, down to the penny.
Image from: "Pool & Billiard Collectibles " © Mark & Connie Stellinga
May 10, 1869
The Transcontinental Railroad is completed with the "Golden Spike"
making cross-country travel "easy and trouble free".  Are we there yet?

Patent #95,765    Oct. 12, 1869    Solomon Brunswick
Revolving billiard table - table top.

Patent # 96,300      Nov 2nd, 1869   William B. Billings
Improved mode of making billiard table beds.

The Billiard Halls of Chicago 1869
As listed in Edward's Chicago Directory 1869-70


Patent # 60,657      Dec. 18, 1866       Levi Decker
Improvement in billiard cushions

The Billiard Halls of Chicago 1866
As listed in Edwards' Chicago Directory. See image below.
John Brennan,   76 Monore
Briggs House Billiard Room, Briggs House, William F. Tucker & Co. Proprs.
Brunswick & Kern ,  Smith & Nixon's Building, Washington, op Court House
Cyrus Coan,  153 S. Dearborn
William M. Collins,  propr.  119 Dearborn
Doty's Billiard Hall, Harvey C. Doty, propr.   84 Randolph
Frank Bros.,   84 and 86 LaSalle
James A. Goodwin,    680 S. Canal
Klare & Frederich,    214 and 216 E. Indiana
Moran & Gray,   79 Dearborn
Munger & Jenkins,   State, nw cor. Washington
Thomas Nelson,   171 S. Dearborn
Antoinie Reutlinger,   Quincy, se cor Wells
Elijah Rust,   McVicker's Theatre Building
Theodore Schreiber,  341 W. Randolph
Charles Somers,  Richmond House
Charles B. Throop,  76 Monroe
George W. Welder,  154 Dearborn
(see also image below)


" This year may be termed the recrudescent period of billiards in Chicago.
New rooms were being opened "all about town", as indicated...from...Tod Cowles,
all around sport editor of the Tribune, who remarked: '
Twelve months ago there
was scarcely a half dozen billiard tables on the west side of the river. Now there
are not far from a hundred.'
" On January 21, 1868,
John McDevitt, champion of America, arrived from
Indianapolis, announcing his purpose to henceforth make Chicago his
permanent abiding place. A number of billiard fans, including local professionals
and amateurs, greeted him the same evening at Foley's room, No. 153 Dearborn
street, where the billiard wonder of his time was tendered quite an ovation..."

[ Then, later that year... ]

"...Joseph Dion of Montreal challenged McDevitt to play...for a wager of $1000...

'Joe' was one of the most sanguine fellows in the world, and he entered into the
game with McDevitt on the evening of September 16th, convinced of a victorious
finish. It was in many respects one of the most remarkable contests in billiard
history. During eight innings Dion played a beautiful game, and was 357 points to
the good, when McDevitt began the phenomenal run which still is the record.

From that moment Dion never had an opportunity to show what was in him. So far
as he was concerned, he was no longer a factor. McDevitt manipulated the balls
until he got them in position, when, without a break, he proceeded to run the game
out, piling up 1,460 points, the crowd shouting itself hoarse, while poor Dion, cue
in hand, turned a chalky white as the referee called out the completed string of
each hundred, and finally declared McDevitt the victor.

He was lifted to the shoulders of admiring friends, carried about the hall amidst a
deafening uproar from lusty throats, and came within an ace of being stripped of
his clothing while fighting his way out of the hall.
It was indeed a great day for the Irish. "
Above excerpts from:
Billiards Magazine May 1920, article by A.L. Hardy titled "Billiards Fifty Years Ago In Chicago"

The Brunswick "Monarch" table is introduced
The Grand Billiard Tournament of New York 1866
This image depicting the players was featured (along with an article about the
event) in the Sept. 22 issue of  
Harper's Magazine in 1866.
Players shown:
 E. Brian, Cyrille and Joseph Dion, Thomas Foley, C.B. Hubbell,
D.E. Gavit, E.J. Plunkett, T. McCarthy, J. Frawley, E. Daniels
July 25 - The first recorded intercollegiate billiard match
was held between the freshman class of Harvard and the freshman
class of Yale. The game was "4-ball" and was played on a 6 x 12' table
with 2-3/8" balls.  
Harvard won. The score was 800 to 720.

Oct 26-31st  - First "professional"  tournament on record.
Held at Phelan & Collender's Union Square Billiard Room, NYC.
A "private" tournament including the winner: Dudley Kavanagh (NY) and
Philip Tieman (OH), James Lynch (NY), Joseph N. White (NY) and
Michael Geary (CHI)   
source: Modern Billiards BBCC 1909

Nov. 6 - Abraham Lincoln is elected president.

23 firms in the U.S. produce billiard tables, employing 298 men only.
source: 8th federal census returns

Below: Portrait of the French billiard champion Claudius Berger.
(a souvenir cue made by Mr. Berger was one of the prizes awarded at
the first professional tournament mentioned above)
Library of Congress - 03238u
Improvement in billiard tables
An article that appeared in "The Manufacturer and Builder ", discussing recent
improvements to cushions made by the Kavanagh and Decker Co.

Below: 1869 Julius Balke " New Rules for the American Carom Game" Poster
Library of Congress: rbpe 08600500
( Berger's tour was cut short by the onslaught of the Civil War )
See Also: Phelan's 1861 ad below for comments from Berger.

The Dean of Chicago Billiards, Tom Foley, cuts his teeth at the
Tremont House. In 1860, soon-to-be-legendary Tom Foley can be
found as a teenager, humbly working as an attendant in the billiard
room at one of Chicago's oldest hotels,
The Tremont House.  See
Tom listed along with the rest of the hotel staff in the 1860 census
(click image to see full size)
Billiard Hall Music Circa 1869
The noticeable rise in billiard popularity inspired at least two different pieces of
music dedicated to the game. One was "
Billiards on the Brain"  and the other
was dedicated specifically to company founder J. M. Brunswick, appropriately
named: "
The Brunswick Polka ". See them both below.   See also: 1875
The Billiard Halls and Table Manufacturers of Chicago 1863
As listed in Halpin & Bailey's Chicago City Directory
Billiard Saloons.
Brunswick J. M. & Bro. cor. Clark and Washington
William Burke, s. e. cor. Van Buren and State
Cyrus Coan, r. Kingsbury blk.
A. M. Crane, 79 Dearborn
H. C. Doty, 74 and 76 Randolph
Erley & White, 178 Clark
David Horan & Co., House of David, 51 Dearborn
John Keller, 210 S. Water
George B. Mansur, 38 N. Clark
Otto Meisner, 152 Indiana
Christian Nurnberger, 143 N. Clark
Dominico Rigoni, 176 Clark
Charles Schwartz, 123 N. Clark
V. D. Watkins, 119 Dearborn

Billiard Table Manufacturers.
Emanuel Brunswick, 74, 76, 78 Randolph
J. M. Brunswick & Bro. cor Clark and Washington
[see also images below]
Back To Top

Copyright ©Chicago Billiard Museum  All Rights Reserved
Above image from: Library of Congress 3b12106u

The Brunswick Polka - Live
Brought back to life over 150 years later, you can now listen to The Brunswick Polka
anytime you like.
Just click here  ( mp3 format )
Performed and recorded by Stephanie M. Coates. Thank You Stephanie.

Brunswick Polka images below from: Joe Newell Collection



The mace is "still much used by ladies and children in their attempts to learn
the rudiments of the game
" ( Phelan )  
John Brunswick -Vs- Emanuel Brunswick -Vs- Michael Phelan & Collender
On July 1, 1862, Congress passed the Internal Revenue Act, creating the Bureau
of Internal Revenue (later renamed the
Internal Revenue Service). This act was
intended to “
provide Internal Revenue to support the Government and to pay
interest on the Public Debt.
” Instituted in the height of the Civil War, the “Public
Debt” at the time primarily consisted of war expenses.

If you take a peek at
IRS tax records from November 1863, it appears that the
Brunswick's were selling much less in the midwest than Phelan was in NY.
In fact, John and Emanuel's sales combined still did not equal half of Phelan's.

However, little did Phelan know at the time, a few years later the Brunswicks will
come back and eat his company for breakfast.

1863 November - Sales for John Brunswick $1685 x 3% = $55.55 tax paid
1863 November - Sales for Emanuel Brunswick $1000 x 3% = $30 tax paid
1863 November - Sales for  Phelan & Collender  $10,712 x 3% = $321.36 tax paid
U.S. IRS Tax Assessment Lists, 1862-1918
June 9th - First "public" tournament & first formal pro championship
and first four-pocket table used in a tourney. Irving Hall, N.Y.C (June 1-9)
Overall winner:
Dudley Kavanagh. Other players included: Louis Fox (NY), John
Deery (NY), Philip Tieman (OH), John Seereiter (MI), Michael Foley (MI), William
Goldthwait (NY), Victor Estephe (PA)
Source: Modern Billiards BBCC 1909

Michael Phelan and the formation of THE FIRST BILLIARD CONGRESS.
A must-read piece of history on the formation of billiard's first governing body.
See also photo below
.  Jim Parker, Illinois Billiard Club.

Below:  Photo of First American Billiard Congress
Image from: Spink Sport Stories Vol. 2, 1921. Left to Right: John Seereiter - Detroit. John
Deery - Washington. Victor Estephe - Philly. William Goldthwaite -NYC. Michael Phelan -NYC.
Louis Fox - Rochester. Philip Tieman - Cinnci. Michael Foley - Detroit. Dudley Kavanagh - NYC.
Copyright - Jim and Bonnie Parker, Illinois Billiard Club. Do NOT duplicate.


The First Official State Billiard Championship of Connecticut is Held
William Hendricks; History of Billiards 1977

Players in the first Professional Tourny held at Sansom St. Hall in Philadelphia.
Image from Billiards Magazine Oct 1918  Charles Ursitti Collection

The "Civil War" has officially begun.

Telegraph lines are finally connected across the entire U.S.
For the first time in history, an "e-mail" could be sent from NY to SF : )  

Below: Ad for Phelan & Collender billiard tables
Image from: American Publisher's Circular & Literary Gazette 1861-62


News:  Chicago Prepares for National (Carom) Billiard Tournament...
Grand opening of Snyder's Billiard  Hall. Players mentioned: Carme, Rudolph,
*McDevitt, C. Dion, Goldthwait, Snyder, Parker, Rhines.
*Sadly, McDevitt will be one of the many victims of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871.

Chicago's First Amateur Billiard Tournaments Are Conducted By Tom Foley

Chicago population: 109,260

Click here to see maps of Chicago from the 1860's
Campbell's Prized Table
Renowned billiard collector Mark Stellinga (in 1980) discovered a beautiful (and
large) antique billiard table that had been stashed away in Chicago for over 100
years.  The amazing table is believed to have been
the very table that was
awarded to Mr. Campbell for winning the April 1863 billiard match in Chicago.
(see above excerpt describing the match)  More photos coming soon.
Below: Early Brunswick Trade Card.
With a rare view of the inside of Brunswick & Kern's billiard hall, across the street
from courthouse square, that was destroyed by the Great Fire of 1871.
Courtesy Neal Lipka collection
"The Billiard Temple"
One of Chicago's premier billiard halls of the day, complete with an unheard of
feature at the time:
a room just for women !  From Bailey's Chicago Directory 1869

Patent # 50,359     Oct. 10th, 1865    John W. Hyatt
Construction of billiard balls using Ivory (or bone) dust and shellac.
One of John's early attempts to create "composition" balls.

Below: Two well preserved 1860's 'trade cards' (similar to business cards)
Images from: "Pool & Billiard Collectibles " © Mark & Connie Stellinga
Image from: "Pool & Billiard Collectibles " © Mark & Connie Stellinga


Patent  #63,465     April 2, 1867     E. Brunswick
Clamp for leathering cue tips.

Chicago's first fresh drinking water tunnel was completed.
It was two miles long and was hand dug through clay, 60 feet under lake Michigan.

The First J.M. Brunswick Table Used In An Official Tournament
From: Modern Billiards 1904 BBCC