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The first electric lighting systems in Chicago are installed
in several hotels. Not surprisingly, the gas lamp companies strongly
opposed the use of electric lights and criticized them as "dangerous".

News:    Jan. 11, 1880    Schaefer defeats Sexton
"The Chicago player shows his skill at the champion's game. Sexton,
though beaten, plays magnificently. A fight to the finish - 600 to 585"  
Players mentioned: Schaefer, Sexton. Referees: George Slosson,
Eugene Carter

April, 1880  How  Ivory  Billiard Balls Are Made
An interesting article that appeared in The Manufacturer and Builder.

Billiard Halls and Table Manufacturers of Chicago 1880:
As listed in the Lakeside Chicago Business Directory
Image from: "Pool & Billiard Collectibles " © Mark & Connie Stellinga


Patent # 256,114      Feb. 13, 1882      Moses Bensinger
Billiard table design

News:  Mar 6, 1882  Hannah and Hogg Open Beautiful New Billiard Hall
A detailed description of the beautiful interior and luxurious decor. Hannah and Hogg
were actually in the liquor business and had
West Bros manage their billiard rooms.

Patent # 264,165  July 31, 1882   Clemens Joergens & Nathan Underwood
Billiard table design/construction.

Image from: "Pool & Billiard Collectibles " © Mark & Connie Stellinga


Patent # 294,516      Feb. 7, 1884     Will Sherwood
Automatic return chalk holder.

Patent # 301,957      July 15, 1884       Emanuel Brunswick
Game attachment for billiard table.

News: Aug 30, 1884  Lawsuit Filed By Brunswick to Stop Billiard License Collection
The decades old struggle over license fees rages on, this time with a lawsuit from
Brunswick et al.

Patent #322,436      Oct. 22, 1884     Nicolas H. Ganser
Improvement on billiard table pockets.

News:     Nov 16, 1884     Slosson & Schaefer To Play.
Slosson and Schaefer are set to play two matches in Chicago - and the discussion of
match particulars - will they use the familiar Brunswick
Monarch cushions or the new
Triplex-Chain-Lightning cushions...

Patent #324,004    Dec. 4, 1884     Emanuel Brunswick
Billiard table with ball return.
Patent # 322,436     July 21, 1885     Nicolas H. Ganser
Combined billiard/carom table.   

Patent # 328,092    Oct. 13, 1885     W. Preston Waggoner
Device for converting pocket billiard tables into pocket-less billiard tables

News:  Nov. 30 1885    Warned Against Billiards: Preacher Denounces Game
"Students often fail to graduate at college simply because they have handled the cue
and chalk more than their books and pencils..."

News:    Dec. 22, 1885     Slosson Wins Against Vignaux
Players mentioned: Slosson, Vignaux, Schaefer
Image from: "Pool & Billiard Collectibles " © Mark & Connie Stellinga


Patent #395,494     Jan. 3, 1888   Axel F. Hjort  (assignor BBCC)
Machine for ornamenting billiard cues.

May 8 -  Mrs. Michael Phelan died. Brooklyn, NY.

News:    June 24, 1888     No odds in odds givers.
"A close diagnosis of the disease of proffering points in "Buttons" to big players "
Scandal and insult over billiard odds.
"....if Schaefer will only cork his ears to the
madcap enthusiasts who environ him, and who, as a rule, do not know billiards from
bosh. They are simply pleased to know that he is "Jake"..
. < THAT is darn funny.

Players mentioned:
Schaefer, Daly, Slosson, Vignaux, Carter, Sexton, Phelan,
Damon, Benjamin, Garnier, Dion, Rudolphe, Tieman, Choate, McDevitt, Kimball,
Catton, Wickes, McKeever, Burger, Flack

News: July 5, 1888  Champion Slosson is Sad
"His great billiard tournament in danger. Schaefer interferes with plans for a grand
exhibition of billiards at Saratoga
." Arguments ensue over whether or not to include
Carter in the match. Players mentioned:
George Slosson, William Sexton, Jacob
Schaefer, Maurice Daly, Eugene Carter

News: Sept. 24, 1888 Twin Tournaments to be set up in NY & Chicago
Schaefer negotiates. Slosson prepares the Colombian Room billiard hall for the
event. Players mentioned:
Schaefer, Slosson, Carter, Daly, Sexton.

Late 1800's time register from the Billiard & Pool Register Co.
This one is set for increments of 5 cents.
Images from: Advertising Ephemera Collection - Emergence of Advertising On-Line Project
John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising & Marketing History
Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library.


News:   Aug. 31, 1889   Extraordinary Billiards. Schaefer vs. Ives
Schaefer wins - averages 200, Ives 111

News:    Nov. 19, 1889     Big Prizes For Billiards
Expert players invited to play in NY & Chicago. Brunswick offers $5k prize.
Leading players in the country to be brought together with or without Schaefer.
Players mentioned:
Schaefer, Slosson, Vignaux

News: Dec 1, 1889  Making Billiard Balls.
"The difficulty getting good ones and the cost. - a simple but very skillful process -
composition balls and the date of their perfection

 " No doubt the day will come when people will have to use composition
[balls], because there will be no ivory. I don't think that will happen in my time. I
should say fifty years hence.. "


Patent # 363,391  May 24, 1887   Murray P. Hough
Cigar holder for billiard table.

News:  Sept. 25, 1887  The War of Billiards
The Champion Cue Furiously Battled For - The Cue's Disfigurement - Notable Games
Police called in to guard table and balls.  Players mentioned:
Kavanach, Tieman,
Goldthwaite, Sexton, Dion, Daly, Schaefer, Deery, Boyle, Reeves, Cahill, O'Connor,
McDevitt, Foster, Carme, Fox, Phelan.

News:    Oct. 16,1887     The Golden Cue Retired
"A Christmas Gift To American Billiard Players".  A historic look at players and
matches of the past. McDevitt controversy and Foley's Golden Cue. Players
Goldthwait, McDevitt, Tieman, Schaefer, Vignaux, Foley, Dion, Lynch,
Slosson, Parker, Phelan, Foster, Kavanagh, Fox, Deery, Collender.

News:   Nov. 6, 1887     The Diamond Tipped Cue
"The Beginning of Chaos in American Billiards." A historic look at championship
game rules and entrance fees. Players mentioned:
Phelan, Collender, Foster,
Rudolphe, Coburn, Daly, Dion, Deery, Parker, O'Connor, Bowman, Bryant, Tieman

Book: A directory and description of the social clubs of Chicago. (1887)  (PDF)
In clubs like these and in homes all around the world, the timeless tradition of billiard
games among friends and family remain unaffected by popularity or market trends.
Billiard Halls & Owners 1880 (pictured above)
George L. Brown  - 157 Dearborn
Brunswick Billiard Hall - Henry Rhines Mgr - 126 Washington
Charles M. Denson - 542 Wabash Av.
John H. Hand  -  218 W. Randolph
A.J. Jansen  -  212  W. Madison
Henry J. Klare  -  70 N. Clark
Louis LaBerge  -  207 W. Madison
William H. Leonard - 507 W. Madison
Charles H. West & Brother - 102 Madison

Billiard Table Companies of Chicago 1880
C.G. Akam Mfg Co.  22 Adams
J.M. Brunswick & Balke Co.  47 and 49 State  Factory, Rush cor.
Kinzie (see ad)
Brunswick & Co. 175 Randolph
H.W. Collender Co.  84 & 86  State
Charles Passow  181 Wright
Nic Stoll  [Garden City Billiards] 61 and 63 Dearborn (see ad)
H.C. Thomas & Co.  63 W. Vanburen
Charles Tuckhorn   49 W. Madison


Patent # 364,677    July 8, 1886      Charles J. Schoening
Folding billiard table.

July 25  - John M. Brunswick died of a heart attack in Cincinnati, Ohio.
An obituary from the Chicago Tribune can be read here.

News:  Dec. 20, 1886   Schaefer Talks Billiards
After winning against Slosson, Schaefer engages in a little bit of bragging and talk of
future matches. Players mentioned:
Schaefer, Slosson, Carter.

1880's original photograph of "The Wizard" Jake Schaefer Sr.

Billiard Halls and Table Manufacturers of Chicago 1885:
As listed in the Lakeside Business Directory
Billiard Halls in Chicago 1885 (pictured above)
Wallace Atwood @ Southern Hotel
Brunswick Billiard Hall - 122 Washington
David Crory - 3006  Cottage Grove av
Thomas Foley  - 141 Madison
Bruce Forester  - 3804 State
George Gale  - 2103 Wabash av
Griffin & Son  - 189 W. Madison
William S. Hunter  -  4239 S. Halstead
C.B. King  - 382 Milwaukee av
Albert Knight  - 285 Ogden av
Leoni Bros  - 3020 State
Moore & Welsh  - 3632 Cottage Grove av
Charles E. Mussey  - 100 and 106 Madison
Parker & Miller  -  212 N. Clark
Henry G. Raymond  -  315  W. Vanburen
L.E. Ridley  -  541 W. Madison
George Slosson  -  71 Monroe
William Sorensen  - 1938 Archer av
Frederick Tibbetts  - 779 W. Madison
J.B. Tymeson  - 499 W. Madison
West Bros.  - 157  Dearborn
Charles P. Whetston  -  3123 State
Charles Wilkens  - 196 W. Indiana
Billiard Table Companies of Chicago 1885 (pictured above)
C. G. Akam Mfg. Co.  20 Adams
Jacob W. Bein  260 Ogden av
The Brunswick Balke Collender Co.  Market cor. Huron and 47 and 49 State
Brunswick & Co.   175 Randolph
Charles Passow  177 Wright
Nicholas Stoll  [Garden City Billiards]  61 and 63 Dearborn av.
Tuckhorn & Co. 35  5th av.
United States Standard Billiard Table Co.  D.J. Delong agt.  50, 125 Clark

Below:  Brunswick 1885 advertisement (same directory)
The Brunswick " Brilliant Novelty "  1880 to 1882
The Brunswick " Manhattan" 1884 to 1888
The Brunswick " New Acme"  1880 to 1882
The Brunswick " OG Novelty"   1880 to 1894
The Brunswick " Popular"  1885 to 1895
The Brunswick " Richmond "    1880 to 1910


Patent #250,861  June 27, 1881   George L. Williams & Henry Rundle
Improvement to billiard cue tip.

Rare 1881 Brunswick trade card from their west coast office in San Francisco

News : March 14, 1883      Billiards In Chicago
Heiser defeated Maggioli. Morris vs. Carter.

News:  March 25, 1883   Varieties of Billiards to be Played at Chicago Tournament
A must-read for carom and balk-line fans, this lengthy article provides interesting
historic details pertaining to the development of the game as well as details from
notable matches played in the past.
Players mentioned:
Slosson, Schaefer, Sexton, Foster, Dion, Deery, Fox, McDevitt,
Daly, Vignaux, Carter, Morris, Flack.

News :  April 8, 1883   Chicago Tournament Review
" The Chicago tournament, which was brought to a close on the night of April 6,
will long be memorable. In two respects it was the most remarkable one of modern
."  Players mentioned: Schaefer, Vignaux, Daly, Sexton, Morris, Dion, Wallace,
Carter, McLaughlin

Below: Excerpt from: Chicago's First Half Century  I.O.P.Co. 1883
An actual ticket from an 1884 billiard match in Philadelphia
Below:  Late 1880s or early 1890s Merle & Heaney billiard game rules poster
Image from: "Pool & Billiard Collectibles " © Mark & Connie Stellinga

Biography of Joseph Brunswick* and a profile of his company.
*The article has several obvious and not so obvious errors. Read with caution. Source listed below.

Biography of Charles Miller, manager for Brunswick.
Both excerpts from: History of Chicago  A.T. Andreas 1886

I886 Industry Report:   7 firms employing 452 people in Chicago billiard factories
(Click image to see full size)
June 7, 1884  An article written in honor of John M. Brunswick
with his picture on the cover.  From: The Mirror of American Sports
Courtesy Joe Newell Collection
Below:  Brunswick and Garden City Billiard Factory advertisement from:
1880 Lakeside Business Directory of Chicago. (Brunswick will buy out Garden City)
Image from: "Pool & Billiard Collectibles " © Mark & Connie Stellinga



April 20 - May 2nd  " The Grand 14" Balkline Billiard Tournament "
Featured in the May 2nd edition of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper
Courtesy D.B. Bond Collection
Below: 1883 Brunswick International Tournament Poster
Showing the "miniature table trophy" in the center, surrounded by the players.
Color lithography at it's finest.
Image from: "Pool & Billiard Collectibles " © Mark & Connie Stellinga

Allen & Ginter's:  Album of Worlds Champions
The album featured re-prints of all the World Champion tobacco cards they had
issued, together in one book. Below are the featured billiard players in the album.